Summary of Clinical Data
Survivors of a stroke or traumatic brain injury, irrespective of how long ago the injury was suffered. Must have enough cognitive function to follow basic instructions. Best if the person already has some minimal movement.
Worldwide there are 85 million stroke survivors with approximately 15.3 and 7 million distributed across China1 and the United States2 respectively. Motor system impairments occur in 80% of patients3 with less than 10% achieving full recovery. Persistent impairments cause activity limitations, participation restrictions, reduced quality of life, and decreased well-being4.
High intensity repetitive task practice delivered via robot-assisted therapy (or constraint induced movement therapy) is recommended to improve motor function in individuals in sup-acute and chronic care settings. These therapies have achieved the highest level of evidential support by the AHA (Class I, Level of Evidence A)4 and the Cochrane Review5.
To date, the Motus Hand and Motus Foot have been variously utilized in 24 peer-reviewed publications ranging from engineering sensor design, basic cortical network plasticity, multi-site randomized control trials, to large multi-state healthcare system implementation studies.
Motus Hand improves active and passive range of motion, fine and gross motor function, and strength6-11.
Following 3-months of Motus Hand rehabilitation, stroke survivors increased their levels of independence in daily activities (required less assistance from either a person or device to accomplish daily tasks)10,11.
Following 3-months of Motus Foot rehabilitation, stroke survivors have increased dorsiflexion force that is maintained over 4 weeks following the intervention. The Motus Foot improves gait speed and walking endurance (distance) in chronic stroke survivors7,12,13.
Positive changes in cortical network behavior (as assessed by dynamic causal modeling) indicate that 3-months of Motus Hand rehabilitation can assist with normalization of cortical function14.
The Motus Hand improves quality of life and reduces depression symptoms7,8,10,15.
The Motus Hand and Motus Foot have been shown to reduce cost of delivering stroke rehabilitation by between 55-65% to the healthcare system. Savings were realized through large reduction in transportation and time-costs of delivering care in a traditional clinical setting7,10.
The Motus Hand works synergistically with existing neurorehabilitation options in two primary ways. Data support ability to amplify functional improvements when combined with standard clinical care. The Motus Hand® can also act as a bridge therapy (alternative) when insurance benefits are exhausted6,8,9.
To date, the Motus Hand and Motus Foot are the only robotic based neurorehabilitation therapies that have been fully deployed in the home environment. Further, their therapeutic index and safety profiles remain high even when utilized without real-time oversight of a licensed therapist7-10,15.
1. Wang, W. et al. Prevalence, incidence, and mortality of stroke in China: results from a nationwide population-based survey of 480 687 adults. Circulation 135, 759-771 (2017).
2. Mozaffarian, D. et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. circulation 131, e29-e322 (2015).
3. Rathore, S. S., Hinn, A. R., Cooper, L. S., Tyroler, H. A. & Rosamond, W. D. Characterization of incident stroke signs and symptoms: findings from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Stroke 33, 2718-2721 (2002).
4. Winstein, C. J. et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 47, e98-e169 (2016).
5. Mehrholz, J., Pohl, M., Platz, T., Kugler, J. & Elsner, B. Electromechanical and robot‐assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2018).
6. Kutner, N. G., Zhang, R., Butler, A. J., Wolf, S. L. & Alberts, J. L. Quality-of-life change associated with robotic-assisted therapy to improve hand motor function in patients with supacute stroke: a randomized clinical trial. Physical therapy 90, 493-504 (2010).
7. Housley, S. et al. Increasing access to cost effective home-based rehabilitation for rural veteran stroke survivors. Austin journal of cerebrovascular disease & stroke 3, 1 (2016).
8. Linder, S. M. et al. Improving quality of life and depression after stroke through telerehabilitation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 69, 6902290020p6902290021-6902290020p6902290010 (2015).
9. Wolf, S. L. et al. The HAAPI (Home Arm Assistance Progression Initiative) trial: a novel robotics delivery approach in stroke rehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair 29, 958-968 (2015).
10. Butler, A. J. et al. Expanding tele-rehabilitation of stroke through in-home robot-assisted therapy. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2, 1-11 (2014).
11. Rosenstein, L., Ridgel, A. L., Thota, A., Samame, B. & Alberts, J. L. Effects of combined robotic therapy and repetitive-task practice on upper-extremity function in a patient with chronic stroke. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 62, 28-35 (2008).
12. J. Lynskey, B. T., G. Abruzzo. Home-based robot-assisted ankle rehabilitation for chronic stroke survivors. (2014).
13. Peterson, S. Home-based Robot Assisted Ankle Rehabilitation for Chronic Stroke Survivors. (2014).
14. Bajaj, S. et al. Dominance of the unaffected hemisphere motor network and its role in the behavior of chronic stroke survivors. Frontiers in human neuroscience 10, 650 (2016).
15. Cherry, C. O. B. et al. Expanding stroke telerehabilitation services to rural veterans: a qualitative study on patient experiences using the robotic stroke therapy delivery and monitoring system program. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology 12, 21-27 (2017).